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Absolute URL

The Internet address of a page or other World Wide Web resource that includes the protocol and complete network location of the page or file is called an absolute URL. The absolute URL includes a protocol, such as "http," network location, and optional path and file name. For example, http://www.exostream.com/home.html is an absolute URL.

Active hyperlink

An Active Hyperlink is the hyperlink that is currently selected in a Web browser. Many browsers highlight the active hyperlink by changing its color.

ActiveX control

A component that can be inserted into a page in order to provide functionality not directly available in HTML, such as animation sequences, credit-card transactions or spreadsheet calculations.

Anonymous ASDL

A file transfer (FTP) service in which any user can log into an FTP server with a common login (usually "ftp" or "anonymous" and any password (usually the person's e-mail address is used as the password). Anonymous FTP is beneficial for the distribution of large files to the public, avoiding the need to assign large numbers of login and password combinations for FTP access.


An Applet, or Java Applet, is a small Java program that can be embedded into an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with most other computers across a network. The current rule is that an applet can only make an Internet connection to the computer from which the applet was sent.


ASCII, the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is the predominant method for encoding 7-bit characters on a personal computer. HTML tags and URLs must be in ASCII.


ASDL, Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, is a method for moving data over regular phone lines that is much faster than a regular phone connection. ASDL allows users to download at higher speeds than when uploading, hence the 'Asymmetric' part of the acronym.

Authentication database

A database on a server that matches user names to passwords.


A backbone is a high-speed line or series of connections that form a major pathway within a network.


The term "bandwidth" is used to refer to the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies available for network signals. The term is also used to describe the throughput capacity or data flow speed of a given network medium or protocol measured in Kilobits or Megabits per second.

Base URL

An optional URL that you assign to a page to convert relative URLs on the page into absolute URLs. A base URL should end with a document name part, such as http://sample/sample.htm, or a trailing slash, such as http://sample/subdir/.


BBS, Bulletin Board System, is a computerized meeting and announcement system that allows people to carry on discussions, upload and download files, and make announcements without the people being connected to the computer at the same time.


A Bit, derived from Binary DigIT, is a single digit number in base-2, i.e. either a 1 or a zero, and is the smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second.


Bps, Bits-Per-Second, is a measurement of the speed that data is moves from one place to another. A 56K modem can move 56,000 bits per second.

Broken hyperlink

A broken hyperlink is a hyperlink that does not correctly point to the web page or Internet file that it was intended to point to. A broken hyperlink indicates either an incorrect URL or a missing page or file, and usually returns a 404 Error, i.e. "File not found."


A browser is client software, such as Internet Explorer, Netscape or Mosaic, which retrieves information from an HTTP server program, allowing the client to view hypertext or HTML web pages on the internet.

Bulletin board

See BBS for more info.


A Byte is a set of Bits that represent a single character. There are 8 Bits in a Byte.


CGI, or Common Gateway Interface, is a set of rules that describe how a Web Server communicates with another piece of software on the same machine, i.e. a CGI program. Any piece of software can be a CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI standard.

CGI "scripts" are scripts that use CGI. CGI is often confused with Perl which is a programming language commonly used to write CGI scripts. Other scripting languages include, Python and PHP3.


A cgi-bin is a common name for the directory on a web server in which CGI programs are stored. The 'bin' part of 'cgi-bin' is a shorthand version of 'binary', as most programs were once referred to as 'binaries'. Most programs found in cgi-bin directories are text files, which are scripts that are executed by binaries located elsewhere on the server. While most programs using CGI are stored in this directory, it is not a requirement for using CGI.


Co-location is a type of hosting where the hosting provider stores and maintains the customer's server. The customer owns the server hardware and software, but houses the equipment in the hosting providers Network Operations Center, NOC, taking advantage of the provider's facilities.

Contact Record

A contact record is contact information that many domain registrars keep on file for technical, billing and administrative purposes. It is important to keep contact records updated to ensure that your registrar can contact the appropriate authority for various issues including billing and renewal issues.


The most common meaning of 'Cookie' on the Internet refers to a piece of information sent by a Web Server to a Web Browser that the Browser software is expected to save and to send back to the Server whenever the browser makes additional requests from the Server. Cookies might contain information such as login or registration information, online 'shopping cart' information, user preferences, etc. When a Server receives a request from a Browser that includes a Cookie, the Server is able to use the information stored in the Cookie. For example, the Server might customize what is sent back to the user, or keep a log of particular user's requests.

Dedicated Server

Dedicated or managed hosting allows the customer to take advantage of a hosting provider's facilities, similar to co-location, however, the customer does not own the server hardware. The hosting provider assumes all the responsibility for the technical support and maintenance of the server.

DNS: Domain Naming System

The Domain Name System (DNS) helps users to find their way around the Internet. Every computer on the Internet has a unique address - just like a telephone number - which is a string of four groups of numbers separated by a period called an "IP address" (IP stands for "Internet Protocol"). The DNS makes using the Internet easier by allowing a familiar string of letters (the "domain name") to be used instead of the arcane IP address, which is difficult to remember. So, instead of typing to get to eXostream's website, you can type www.exostream.com. In essence, DNS is a "mnemonic" device that makes web addresses easier to remember.

Domain Name

A domain name is the name that is assigned to a specific IP address so that the address can more easily be remembered.

Every domain name is made up of two components, a generic or global top-level domain, gTLD, and a second-level domain, SLD, which are separated by a period. For example, in exostream.com, "exostream" represents the second-level domain, while the ".com" represents the top-level domain. Together, exostream.com, is referred to as the second-level domain name.

There are also country code top-level domains called ccTLDs. These domain extensions represent a specific country for example, .us for the United States, .uk for the United Kingdom and .ca for Canada.


eCommerce, Electronic Commerce, refers to the general exchange of goods and services via the Internet.


E-mail, Electronic Mail, is a service used for sending messages electronically over a computer network. E-mail can be sent from one address to another, or automatically to a large number of addresses, see Mailing List.


Ethernet is a very common method of networking computers in a LAN, Local Area Network. Ethernet can handle approximately 10,000,000 bits-per-second and can be used with almost any kind of computer.

External hyperlink

An external hyperlink is a hyperlink to any file that is outside the current web page.


FAQ, Frequently Asked Questions, are documents that list and answer the most common questions on a particular subject.


A file is a named collection of information that is stored on a computer disk.

File server

A file server is a program running on a network that stores files and provides access to them.

File type

A file type is the format of a file, usually indicated by its filename extension, such as .xls for a Microsoft Excel file or .rtf for a rich text formatted file.


A fire wall is a method of securing one network from another network by blocking unwanted access to the protected network while giving the protected network access to networks outside of the firewall. There are both software and hardware firewall solutions.


A form is a set of data entry fields on a page that are processed on the server. The data is sent to the server when the user submits the form by clicking on a button, image or icon.

Form field

A form field is a data-entry field on a page. A user supplies information in a field either by typing text or by selecting the field.

Form handler

A form handler is a program on a server that executes when a user submits a form.


FrontPage®, is a popular web site creation and management software tool developed by Microsoft.


FTP, File Transfer Protocol, is a common method of transferring files between computers in different locations. An FTP client program (such as CuteFTP or WS-FTP) is required to access an FTP server.


The technical definition of a gateway is a hardware or software set-up that translates between two dissimilar protocols, for example some ISPs have a gateway that translates between their internal, proprietary e-mail format and Internet e-mail format. "Gateway" might also be used to describe any mechanism for providing access to another system, e.g. AOL might be called a gateway to the Internet.


A Gigabyte is 1024 Megabytes.


Gopher is a widely successful method of making menus of material available over the Internet. Gopher is a Client and Server style program like FTP, which requires that the user have a Gopher Client program. Although Gopher spread rapidly across the globe in only a couple of years, it has been largely supplanted by Hypertext, also known as WWW, World Wide Web.


As used in reference to the World Wide Web, 'hit' means a single request from a web browser for a single item from a web server; thus in order for a web browser to display a page that contains 3 graphics, 4 'hits' would occur at the server: 1 for the HTML page, and one for each of the 3 graphics.

'hits' are often used as a very rough measure of load on a server, e.g. 'Our server has been getting 300,000 hits per month.' Because each 'hit' can represent anything from a request for a tiny document (or even a request for a missing document) all the way to a request that requires some significant extra processing (such as a complex search request), the actual load on a machine from 1 hit is almost impossible to define.

Home page

A home page, or homepage, is the starting point on a Web server. It is the page that is retrieved and displayed by default when a user visits the Web server. The default home-page name for a server depends on the server's configuration, however, on most Web servers, it is index.html or index.htm.

A more common meaning of home page refers to the main web page out of a collection of web pages, e.g. the home page for ExoStream Communications would be www.exostream.com.


Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to other computers on the network is considered a host. It is quite common to have one host machine provide several services, such as WWW and USENET.


Hosting is the term used to refer to the housing of various items such as an application, database, web site, email or a domain. There are several types of hosting, including, dedicated, co-location, shared and virtual hosting.


A hotspot is a graphically defined area in an image that contains a hyperlink. An image with hotspots is called an image map. In browsers, hotspots are invisible, however users can tell that a hotspot is present by the changing appearance of the pointer.


HTML, HyperText Markup Language, is the standard language for describing the contents and structure of pages on the World Wide Web. HTML looks a lot like old-fashioned typesetting code, where you surround a block of text with codes that indicate how it should appear. In addition, with HTML you can specify that a block of text, or a word, is linked to another file on the Internet, i.e. a hyperlink. HTML files are meant to be viewed using a World Wide Web Client Program, such as Netscape, Internet Explorer or Mosaic.

HTML attribute

A, HTML attribute is a name-value pair used within an HTML tag to assign additional properties to the object being defined.

HTML character encoding

HTML character encoding is a table that associates a numeric index with each character in a character set. The table is used when you create a Web page for use in a specific language.

HTML tag

An HTML tag is a symbol used in HTML to identify a page element's type, format, and structure.


HTTP, Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, is the Internet protocol used to transfer hypertext, or HTML web pages on the internet. This requires an HTTP client program, or web browser such as Internet Explorer, Netscape or Mosaic, which retrieves information from an HTTP server program.


A hyperlink is a jump from text or from an image map to a page or other type of file on the World Wide Web. In World Wide Web pages, hyperlinks are the primary way to navigate between pages and among Websites.


Originally, the term "hypertext" was use to describe any textual information on a computer containing jumps to other information. The hypertext jumps are called hyperlinks. In World Wide Web pages, hypertext is the primary way to navigate between pages and among Websites. Hypertext on World Wide Web pages has been expanded to include hyperlinks from text and hyperlinks from image maps.


A graphic in GIF or JPEG file format that can be inserted in a World Wide Web page. FrontPage lets you import images in the following formats and insert them as GIF or JPEG: GIF, JPEG, BMP (Windows and OS/2), TIFF, TAG, PCD, RAS, EPS, PCX, and WMF.

Image map

An image map is an image containing one or more invisible regions, called hotspots, which are assigned hyperlinks.


The global computer network composed of a vast collection of inter-connected networks, both wide-area networks, (WANs) and local-area networks, (LANs), that use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60's and early 70's is referred to as the Internet, (Upper-case "I").

In addition, any two or more networks connected together can be referred to as an internet, (Lower-case - "I").


InterNIC (now known as Network Solutions) currently holds an exclusive contract with the U.S. government to assign domain names for .COM, .NET and .ORG. The contract is scheduled to expire September 30, 1998. Network Solutions is the company that runs the InterNIC registry.


A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use.


IP, Internet Protocol, is Internet software that divides data into packets for transmission over the Internet. Computers must run IP to communicate across the Internet.

IP address

An IP address, (Internet Protocol address), is the standard way of identifying a computer that is connected to the Internet, much the way a telephone number identifies a telephone on a telephone network. The IP address is a 32-binary digit number that identifies each sender or receiver of information that is sent in packet across the Internet. When you request a web page or send an e-mail, your IP address is sent to the IP address associated with the domain name in the URL you requested or in the e-mail address you sent mail to. At the other end, the recipient can see your IP address and can respond by sending the web page you requested or another message using the IP address received.

IP address mask

IP address mask, Internet Protocol address mask, is a range of IP addresses defined so that only machines with IP addresses within the range are allowed access to an Internet service. To mask a portion of the IP address, it must be replaced with an asterisk wild card character (*). For example, "192.44.*.*," represents every computer on the Internet with an IP address beginning with 192.44.


(Integrated Services Digital Network) -- Basically a way to move more data over existing regular phone lines. ISDN is rapidly becoming available to much of the USA and in most markets it is priced very comparably to standard analog phone circuits. It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second over regular phone lines. In practice, most people will be limited to 56,000 or 64,000 bits-per-second.


ISP, (Internet Service Provider) is an institution that provides access to the Internet in some form, usually for money.


Java is a network-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems that is specifically designed for writing programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs called "Applets", Web pages can include functions such as animations, calculators, and other fancy tricks.

Java applet

A Java Applet is a short program written in Java that is attached to a World Wide Web page and executed by the browser machine.


JavaScript is a cross-platform, World Wide Web scripting language developed by Netscape Communications. JavaScript code is inserted directly into the HTML page.


JDK, Java Development Kit, is a software development package from Sun Microsystems that implements the basic set of tools needed to write, test and debug Java applications and applets.


JPEG, Joint Photographic Expert Group, is a color image format with excellent compression for most kinds of images. JPEG is commonly used on the World Wide Web for 24-bit color images.


Derived from the SI unit modifier meaning 'a thousand,' a Kilobyte is actually 1024 (2^10) bytes.


LAN, Local Area Network, is a computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same building or floor of a building. However, several LANs can be connected to over longer distances via telephone lines and radio. This system of LANs is called a wide-area network (WAN). A LAN can be connected to the Internet and can also be configured as an intranet.

Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers. Typically, each node in a LAN can access data and devices anywhere on the LAN, allowing many users to share expensive devices, such as laser printers, as well as data. Users can also use the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending e-mail or engaging in chat sessions.

There are many different types of LANs, including Ethernets, which are the most common for PCs, and AppleTalk network system, which is used for Apple Macintosh.


Refers to a phone line that is rented for exclusive 24-hour, 7 -days-a-week use from your location to another location. The highest speed data connections require a leased line.


The most common kind of maillist, Listservs originated on BITNET but they are now common on the Internet.


Linux is an operating system, originally developed by Linus Torvalds, whose development is continued by programmers all over the world who write supporting software and give it away to anyone who needs it.

Linux source code is freely available and may be modified to suit users' requirements as are many of its applications, offering its users an independence and flexibility that other commercially available operating systems cannot.


As a noun, login refers to the account name used to gain access to a computer system, application or network. As a verb, login is the act of entering into a computer system, application or network.


Maillist, or Mailing List, is a system that allows people to send a single e-mail, which is then automatically copied and sent to all of the other subscribers to the maillist.


Mailto is the Internet protocol that is used to send electronic mail.


Derived from the SI unit modifier meaning 'a million,' a Megabyte is actually 1024 Kilobytes.

Meta tag

A meta tag is an HTML tag that must appear in the portion of the page. Meta tags supply information about the page but do not affect its display. A standard meta tag, "generator," is used to supply the type of editor that created the HTML page.


MIME, or Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, is the standard for attaching non-text files to standard Internet mail messages. Non-text files include graphics, spreadsheets, formatted word-processor documents, sound files, etc.

An email program is said to be MIME Compliant if it can both send and receive files using the MIME standard. When non-text files are sent using the MIME standard they are converted or encoded into text, although the resulting text is not readable.

Generally speaking, the MIME standard is a way of specifying both the type of file being sent, and the method that should be used to turn it back into its original form.

Besides email software, the MIME standard is also universally used by Web Servers to identify the files they are sending to Web Clients, in this way new file formats can be accommodated simply by updating the Browsers' list of pairs of MIME-Types and appropriate software for handling each type.


To 'mirror' is to maintain an exact copy of something. A common use of the term on the Internet refers to 'mirror sites' which are web sites, or FTP sites that maintain exact copies of material originated at another location, usually in order to provide more widespread access to the resource.

Another common use of the term 'mirror' refers to an arrangement where information is written to more than one hard disk simultaneously, so that if one disk fails, the computer keeps on working without losing anything.


Modem, derived from MOdulator, DEModulator, is a device that is connected to a computer and to a phone or cable line that allows the computer to communicate with other computers through the phone system or cable network.


Mosaic was the first World Wide Web browser that was available for Macintosh, Windows and UNIX.


Multihosting is the ability of a Web server to support more than one Internet address, (domain name), and more than one home page on a single server.

MX Record: Mail Exchange

Mail Exchange record is part of the zone file and is used to designate which mail server machine should process email for a specific domain.

Name Servers

A Name Server is a computer that performs the mapping of domain names to IP addresses.

Nested list

A nested list is a list that is contained within a member of another list. Nesting is indicated by indentation in most Web browsers.


Netscape is a common World Wide Web browser, originally based on the Mosaic program developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). The main author of Netscape, Mark Andreessen, was hired away from the NCSA by Jim Clark, and they founded a company called Mosaic Communications, which soon after changed the name to Netscape Communications Corporation. Netscape Communications has since been acquired by America Online, which is now known as AOL Time Warner.


A network is created when 2 or more computers are connected together so that they can share resources. When two or more networks are connected together, an internet is created.


The name for discussion groups on USENET. See Also: USENET


NIC, or Networked Information Center, is any office that handles information for a network, e.g. Network Solutions, which maintains information for many domain names.

NIC also refers to a Network Interface Card which plugs into a computer and adapts the network interface to the appropriate standard. ISA, PCI, and PCMCIA cards are all examples of NICs.


Any single computer connected to a network.


Windows NT®, New technology, is Microsoft's® 32-bit operating system developed from what was originally intended to be OS/2 3.0 before Microsoft ®and IBM ceased joint development of OS/2. Used by web hosting companies in the network environment to offer customers support for Microsoft base products such as MS Access®, MS SQL® 7.0, and FrontPage® 2000.


An OC-3 is a circuit that transmits 155,000,000 bits per second.

Packet Switching

Packet Switching is the method used to move data around on the Internet. In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks, each chunk has the address of where it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines, and be sorted and directed to different routes by special machines along the way. This allows many people to use the same lines at the same time.


Parking is a term that refers to the process by which someone selects a domain name, and "parks" it by registering the domain name under name servers. Registries require the use of name servers or hosts for every domain registered. When a domain is 'parked' the domain is registered and points to a nameserver, but does not have webhosting and associated services.


The portion of a URL that identifies the folders containing a file. For example, in the URL http://my.web.site/hello/world /greetings.htm, the path is /hello/world/.


A password is a code used to gain access to a locked system.


PCT, or Personal Communications Technology, is an enhanced version of Secure Socket Layer. (See also SSL)


POP, or Post Office Protocol, refers to the protocol used by e-mail software such as Outlook, Lotus Notes and Eudora get mail from a mail server.


A port refers to one of the network input/output channels of a computer running TCP/IP. In the World Wide Web, port usually refers to the port number that a server is running on. A single computer can have many Web servers running on it, but only one server can be running on each port. The default port for World Wide Web servers is 80, while the standard gopher port is 70.


PPP, or Point to Point Protocol, is a well known as a protocol that allows a computer to use a regular telephone line and a modem to make TCP/IP connections.


Propagation is the process whereby the nameservers throughout the world have updated their records for a specific domain. For example, if you move your domain from one host to another, it will take between 24 and 48 hours for the new address to be updated on all of the nameservers around the world. During this period, the traffic decreases at the old location and increases at the new location.


Properties are the settings and values that characterize an item on the web, such as the title and URL of a web, the file name and path of a file, or the name and initial value of a form field.


A protocol is a type or method of accessing a document or service over the Internet, such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

Proxy server

A proxy server is an Internet server that acts as a firewall, mediating traffic between a protected network and the Internet.

Radio Button

A radio button is a form field that presents the user with a selection that can be chosen by clicking on a button. Radio buttons are presented in a list, one of which is selected by default. Selecting a new member of the list deselects the currently selected item.

Real Audio / Real Video

Real Audio/Real Video enables users of personal computers and other consumer electronic devices to send and receive audio, video and other multimedia services using the Web.


A registrant is the entity, organization or individual that registers a domain name.

Registered User

A registered user is a user of a Website with a recorded name and password.


A registrar is a company that registers domain names. The registrar you choose will ask the registrant to provide various contact and technical information that makes up the registration. The registrar will keep records of the contact information and submit the technical information to a central directory known as the "registry."


The registry is an organization responsible for assigning domain names for the top-level domain, (TLD), that they manage. In addition, it is their responsibility to update the global DNS tables that all nameservers use to resolve domain names. InterNIC is the registry for TLDs such as .com, .net and .org domain names.

Relative URL

The Internet address of a page or other World Wide Web resource with respect to the Internet address of the current page is called a relative URL. A relative URL gives the path from the current location of the page to the location of the destination page or resource.


Most TLDs need to be renewed at some scheduled yearly interval. This is an opportunity for both the registrant and the registry to update their records as well as collect any applicable renewal fees.


The conversion of an internet address or domain name into the corresponding physical location, i.e. IP address, is called resolution.


A router is a special-purpose computer or software package that handles the connection between 2 or more networks. Routers look at the destination addresses of the packets passing through them and deciding which route to send them on.


RTF, Rich Text Format, is a method of encoding text formatting and document structure using the ASCII character set.

Security Certificate

A security certificate is piece of information, often stored as a text file, that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection. Security Certificates contain information about the owner, who it was issued by, a unique serial number or other unique identification, valid dates, and an encrypted 'fingerprint' that can be used to verify the contents of the certificate. In order for an SSL connection to be created both sides must have a valid Security Certificate.


A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other computers is called a server. The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software is running. A single server machine could have several different server software packages running on it, thus providing many different servers to clients on the network.

Server-Side Image Map

A server-side image map is an image map that passes the coordinates of the cursor to a CGI handler routine on the server. Server-side image maps require your server to compute the target URL of the hyperlink based on the cursor coordinates.

Server-Side Include

Server-side include, SSI, is a feature provided by some Web servers that automatically inserts text onto pages when they are given to the browser.


SGML is an ISO (International Standards Organization) markup language for representing documents on computers. HTML is based on SGML concepts.

Shared Hosting

Shared hosting is similar to dedicated hosting in that the hosting provider owns the hardware stored in their NOC facility, however, the customer shares server space with many other clients, allowing the customer to experience a much lower cost of service. Instead of a customer buying their own server, they lease space on the hosting provider's server with other customers, much like renting an apartment in an apartment building with other residents.


Shockwave, produced by Macromedia, allows users to view various forms of entertainment on the Web, such as games, music, rich-media chat, interactive product demos, and e-merchandising applications.


SMTP, or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, is the protocol used to send electronic mail on the Internet. SMTP consists of a set of rules for how a program sending mail and a program receiving mail should interact.


SNMP, Simple Network Management Protocol, is a set of standards for communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP network. Examples of these devices include routers, hubs, and switches. A device is said to be 'SNMP compatible' if it can be monitored and/or controlled using SNMP messages. SNMP messages are known as 'PDU's' - Protocol Data Units. Devices that are SNMP compatible contain SNMP 'agent' software to receive, send, and act upon SNMP messages.

Spam (or Spamming)

Spamming is an inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list, USENET or other networked communications facility as if it was a broadcast medium by sending the same message to a large number of people who didn't ask for it.


SQL, Structured Query Language, is a specialized programming language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed using SQL.


SSL, or Secure Sockets Layer, is a low-level protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet. SSL used mostly, but not exclusively, in communications between web browsers and web servers. URL's that begin with 'https' indicate that an SSL connection will be used. SSL provides 3 important things: Privacy, Authentication, and Message Integrity.

In an SSL connection each side of the connection must have a Security Certificate, which each side's software sends to the other. Each side then encrypts what it sends using information from both its own and the other side's Certificate, ensuring that only the intended recipient can de-crypt it, and that the other side can be sure the data came from the place it claims to have come from, and that the message has not been tampered with.


Sysop, (System Operator), refers to anyone responsible for the physical operations of a computer system or network resource.


A T-1 is a leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second.


A T-3 is a leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000 bits-per-second.


TCP, (Transmission Control Protocol), is Internet networking software that controls the transmission of packets of data over the Internet. TCP checks for lost packets, puts the data from multiple packets into the correct order, and requests that missing or damaged packets be resent. Computers must run TCP to communicate with World Wide Web servers.


TCP/IP, (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), is the suite of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software is now available for every major kind of computer operating system.


Telnet is the command and program used to login from one Internet site to another. The telnet command/program gets you to the login: prompt of another host.


One Terabyte is equal to 1024 gigabytes.


A thumbnail is a small version of an image on a World Wide Web page, often containing a hyperlink to a full-size version of the image.


A URL or Universal Resource Locator is a unique identifier that distinguishes an address on the World Wide Web (www), along with the protocol by which the resource is accessed. The most common URL type is "http," which gives the Internet address of a www page, for example, http://www.exostream.com. Other URL types include "gopher," which provides the Internet address of a Gopher directory, and "ftp," which calls up the Internet address of an FTP resource. No two websites can have the same URL just like no two residencies can have the same phone number.


UNIX is a multi-user operating system designed in the 1970s typically used on proprietary workstations and computers. Available in many versions, the open source Linux operating system is based on Unix.


USENET is a world-wide system of discussion groups, with comments passed among hundreds of thousands of machines. USENET is completely decentralized, with over 10,000 discussion areas, called newsgroups.

Virtual Hosting

Hosting service designed to provide you with the tools you need to effectively manage your presence on the Internet.


Wan, Wide Area Network, refers to any internet or network that covers an area larger than a single building or campus.


Whois is a program that allows users to query databases of domain names and their associated contact information, which are maintained by registries.


WWW, World Wide Web, can be used to refer to the whole constellation of resources that can be accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP, telnet, USENET, WAIS and some other tools. In addition, WWW refers to the universe of hypertext servers (HTTP servers) which are the servers that allow text, graphics, sound files, etc. to be mixed together.

Zone file

A zone file is the group of files that reside on the domain host or nameserver. The zone file designates a domain, its subdomains and mail server.

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